Links and Resources
Nuclear fuel cycle
Raw uranium goes through a series of steps to become enriched uranium, used as fuel either in a nuclear power plant or in a bomb. Here is a step-by-step introduction to the "nuclear fuel cycle."
The International Atomic Energy Agency provides a detailed chronology of nonproliferation-related events, treaties and agreements.
International Atomic Energy Agency
A brief history of the IAEA, the multilateral agency charged with promoting the peaceful use of nuclear power. As the world's nuclear inspectorate, the IAEA safeguards civilian reactors to ensure they're not being used for military purposes.
The Nonproliferation Treaty is the backbone of the global nonproliferation regime. Find the treaty text here:
This tutorial provides an in-depth look at the treaty's history, provisions, pros and cons.
For a quicker look at NPT basics, see this fact sheet.
In 1971, an informal group of states formed the Zangger Committee to institute export controls to try to keep nuclear material out of the wrong hands.
Nuclear Suppliers Group
After India, which was not party to the Nonproliferation Treaty, detonated a nuclear bomb during a 1974 test, several states joined the Zangger Committee to form the Nuclear Suppliers Group, which further regulates trade in dual-use technologies.
Passed in 2004, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1540 prohibited proliferation to "non-state actors" i.e. terrorist groups, and required all nations to develop infrastructure to prevent such proliferation, including export controls and physical protection of sensitive facilities.
Export controls in the United States are administered and overseen by the departments of Commerce and Justice. Here are summaries of the most recent arrests and judgments in export-related cases.
Nuclear weapons free zones
Nuclear-weapons countries, such as the United States, agree not to use nuclear weapons against countries in these zones, which have committed not to build or acquire nuclear bombs.
The nuclear renaissance