Roe v. Wade is the most significant abortion-rights case the Supreme Court has heard to date.
In 1971, Jane Roe, a resident of Texas, wanted to abort her pregnancy. Texas laws prohibited abortions, except in cases where the health of the mother was threatened. Roe filed action against Dallas County Texas district attorney Henry Wade, claiming that her right to an abortion "performed by a competent, licensed physician, under safe clinical conditions" was protected under the 14th Amendment.
The Supreme Court agreed with her in a 5-2 vote. Justice Blackman wrote the Court opinion and Justice Marshall concurred.